References and further reading

The gas industry

ActewAGL, 2017, ActewAGL: Our year in review 2016–17
AGL, n.d., How choosing electricity over gas can help you and the environment
AlphaBeta and Climate Council, 2020, Clean Jobs Plan: How 76,000 new jobs for Australians can help rebuild our economy now and tackle climate change
Amponsah, NY, Troldborg, M, Kington, B, Aalders, I, Lloyd Hough, R, 2014, Greenhouse gas emissions from renewable energy sources: a review of lifecycle considerations, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol 39, pp 461–475
Anderson, R, 2019, Emissions intensity of household electricity vs gas, Renew
Australian Government Department of the Environment and Energy, 2019, Australian energy update, September 2019
Beyond Zero Emissions, 2013, Why no gas in buildings?
Beyond Zero Emissions, 2020, Boosting manufacturing is the right policy but NCCC is backing the wrong technology
Beyond Zero Emissions, 2020, The Million Jobs Plan: A unique opportunity to demonstrate the growth and employment potential of investing in a low-carbon economy
Borunda, A, 2020, Natural gas is a much ‘dirtier’ energy source than we thought, National Geographic
Brack, D & King, R, 2020, Net zero and beyond: What role for bioenergy with carbon capture and storage?, Chatham House
California Energy Commission, 2020, The challenge of retail gas in California’s low-carbon future: technology options, customer costs, and public health benefits of reducing natural gas use
Campbell, R, Ogge, M & Murray, C, 2018, The economic impacts of unconventional gas in Western Australia, The Australia Institute
Carrazzo, N, 2015, Are we cooking the planet with gas? An analysis of the impact of gas v efficient electric residential appliance choices on CO2e emissions, Alternative Technology Association
Chandler, D, 2019, The uncertain role of natural gas in the transition to clean energy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Climate Council, 2020, Why is gas bad for climate change and energy prices?
Climate Media Centre, 2020, Guide to gas
CSIRO, 2020, What is unconventional gas?
Davis, R, 2020, Seismic surveying reduces whiting catch rate by 99.5 per cent, research finds, ABC News
Ellis, JI, Clark, MR, Rouse, HL & Lamarche, G, 2017, Environmental management frameworks for offshore mining: the New Zealand approach, Marine Policy, vol 84, pp 178–92
Evoenergy, n.d., About us
Evoenergy, n.d., A net zero emissions gas network
Evoenergy, 2020, Evoenergy gas network 2021 draft plan
Evoenergy, 2019, Annual planning report 2019
Forcey, T, 2019, What’s so bad about gas?
Forcey, T, 2018, Greenhouse gas footprint: What we do and don’t know about gas, Renew Magazine
Forcey, T, 2015, Switching off gas – An examination of declining gas demand in Eastern Australia, Melbourne Energy Institute
Graham, PW, Hayward, J, Foster, J, Story, O & Havas, L, 2018, GenCost 2018: Updated projections of electricity generation technology costs, CSIRO
Grudnoff, M, 2012, Measuring fugitive emissions: Is coal seam gas a viable bridging fuel?, The Australia Institute
Hahn, E, 2020, Liquefied petroleum gas: LPG – What is LPG?, Elgas
Keech, R, 2013, Gas – is it a natural fit for buildings?, Renew Economy

Kessel, J & Tabuchi, H, 2019, It’s a vast, invisible climate menace. We made it visible., The New York Times
Mazengarb, M, 2020, Gaslighting on emissions: IEEFA says burning LNG “worse than coal” for climate, Renew Economy
Mazengarb, M, 2020, Regulator rules it is misleading to claim gas is ‘cleaner and greener’, Renew Economy
Melbourne Energy Institute, 2016, A review of current and future methane emissions from Australian unconventional oil and gas production
Morris, N, 2020, Farmer says report shows CSG company gave incorrect groundwater data to regulator, ABC News
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2014, Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization
Oakely Greenwood, 2017, Gas price trends review
Ogge, M, 2020, CSIR…who? A closer look at recent research on coal seam gas environmental impacts, The Australia Institute
Ogge, M, 2019, Just to cap it off: Submission to the 2019 Review of the Australian Domestic Gas Security Mechanism (ADGSM), The Australia Institute
Ogge, M & Swann, T, 2020, Emissions from onshore gas in Victoria, The Australia Institute
RMIT ABC Fact Check, 2020, Matt Canavan says there’s no government subsidisation of Australia’s fossil fuel industries. Is he correct?, ABC News
Robertson, B, 2019, Coal seam gas is high cost gas for Queenslanders, Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis
Robertson, B, 2020, Is the gas industry facing its Volkswagen moment? Gas is more emissions intensive than the gas industry’s marketing arm suggests, Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis
Saddler, H, 2020, National Energy Emissions Audit Report – April 2020, The Australia Institute
Schlömer, S, Bruckner, T, Fulton, L, Hertwich, E, McKinnon, A, Perczyk, D, Roy, J, Schaeffer, R, Sims, R, Smith, P, and Wiser, R, 2014, Annex III: Technology-specific cost and performance parameters. In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Edenhofer, O, Pichs-Madruga, R, Sokona, Y, Farahani, E, Kadner, S, Seyboth, K, Adler, A, Baum, I, Brunner, S, Eickemeier, P, Kriemann, B, Savolainen, J, Schlömer, S, von Stechow, C, Zwickel, T and Minx, JC (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
Silberg, M, 2020, Fossil gas has no future in low-carbon buildings, Rocky Mountain Institute
Stock, A, Steffen, W, Bourne, G, Rice, M & Stock, P, 2017, Pollution and price: The cost of investing in gas, Climate Council
Swann, T, 2019, High carbon from a land down under: Quantifying CO2 from Australia’s
fossil fuel mining and exports, The Australia Institute
Swann, T, 2020, All it’s fracked up to be, The Australia Institute
The Australia Institute, 2020, Fracking and slacking: NT Government subsidies to onshore oil and gas
Jemena, n.d., Who we are
Jemena, 2019, Construction of the Atlas Gas Pipeline commences
The Wilderness Society, 2019, 7 ways oil and gas drilling is bad for the environment
Union of Concerned Scientists, n.d., Environmental impacts of natural gas
Walker, T, 2020, German LNG terminal plans fuel anger among environmentalists, Deutsche Welle
Zielinski, S, 2010, Ten natural products that kill, Smithsonian Magazine

Hydrogen and biogas

Australian Gas Infrastructure Group, n.d., Hydrogen Park South Australia
Baxter, T, 2020, Hydrogen cars won’t overtake electric vehicles because they’re hampered by the laws of science
Bilgin, O, 2015, Evaluation of hydrogen energy production of mining waste waters and pools, 2015 International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA), IEEE Xplore
Biogasman, 2015, What is digestate?
Blanco Reaño, H, 2019, Hydrogen potential in the future EU energy system: a multi-sectoral, multi-model approach, Chapter 4, University of Groningen
Börjesson, P & Berglund, M, 2006, Environmental systems analysis of biogas systems—Part I: Fuel-cycle emissions, Biomass and Bioenergy, vol 30, no 5, pp 469–85
Clemens, R, Trudewind, A & Zapp, P, 2014, Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via electrolysis – a review, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol 85, pp 151–63
Derwent, R, 2006, Environmental impacts of hydrogen-based energy systems, European Commission DG ENV, News Alert, issue 39
Dohrman, P, 2017, How does hydrogen affect the environment?, Sciencing
Environmental Defense Fund, n.d., Methane research series: 16 studies
Forcey, T, 2020, Hydrogen in the gas grid is a great idea – if you own the gas grid, The Fifth Estate
Frihammer, V, 2019, Green hydrogen: Produced from renewable energy sources, Open Access Government
Fukuzumi, S, Lee, YM & Nam, W, 2017, Fuel production from seawater and fuel cells using seawater, ChemSusChem, vol 10, pp 4264–76
Gerhardt, N, Bard, J, Schmitz, R, Beil, M, Pfennig, M & Kneiske, T, 2020, Hydrogen in the energy system of the future: focus on heat in buildings, Fraunhofer Institute for Energy Economics and Energy System Technology
Green Hydrogen Systems, n.d., Green hydrogen
Kaitsu, M, Swann, T & Quicke, A, 2019, Hytrojan: Is hydrogen the next “clean coal”?, The Australia Institute
Kane, M, 2020, Battery electric vs hydrogen fuel cell: efficiency comparison, Inside EVs
Kilkis, B & Kilkis, S, 2018, Hydrogen economy model for nearly net-zero cities with exergy rationale and energy-water nexus, Energies, vol 11, p 1226

Madhusha, 2017, Difference Between Biomass and Biogas, Pediaa
May, J, 2020, Victoria making renewable electricity and heat from high strength organic waste, Using Renewables
Mazengarb, M, 2020, Complete switch to hydrogen fuel flights possible by 2050, CSIRO says, Renew Economy
Mehmeti, A & Angelis-Dimakis, A, Arampatzis, G, McPhail, S & Ulgiati, S, 2018, Life cycle assessment and water footprint of hydrogen production methods: From conventional to emerging technologies, Environments, vol 5, no 2
Melaina, MW, Antonia, O & Penev, M, 2013, Blending hydrogen into natural gas pipeline networks: A review of key issues, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Nield, D, 2017, Awesome new method can pull hydrogen fuel from seawater using only sunshine, Science Alert
Nowotny, J & Nejat Veziroglub, T, 2011, Impact of hydrogen on the environment, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol 36, no 20, pp 13218–24
Paolini, V, Petracchini, F, Segreto, M, Tomassetti, L, Naja, N & Cecinato, A, 2018, Environmental impact of biogas: A short review of current knowledge, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, vol 53, no 10, pp 899–906
Pellow, MA, Emmott, CJM, Barnhart, CJ & Benson, SM, 2015, Hydrogen or batteries for grid storage? A net energy analysis, Energy & Environmental Science, no. 8, pp 1938–52
Pollution Solutions, 2014, Does biogas contribute to climate change?
Potts, LGA & Martin, DJ, n.d., Anaerobic digestion, gasification and pyrolysis, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems
Rapier, R, 2020, Life cycle emissions of hydrogen, 4th Generation Energy
Veolia, n.d., Woodlawn Bioreactor, NSW
Webber, E, 2007, The water intensity of the transitional hydrogen economy, IOP Science, Environmental Research Letters, vol 2, no 3
Wikipedia, n.d., Anaerobic digestion
Wilke, A, n.d., Biogas: a renewable biofuel, University of Florida
Wilke, A, n.d., Feedstocks for biogas production, University of Florida

Heat pumps for hot water, heating and cooling

Arctic Heat Pumps, n.d., Best Heat Pumps For Cold Climates
Australian Government, n.d., Hot water systems
Australian Government, n.d., Heating and cooling
Automatic Heating, n.d., Revere™ CO₂ Air to Water Heat Pump
Barnes, C, n.d., How to buy the best air conditioner, Choice
Clean Energy Council, n.d., Solar water heating
Devex Systems, 2019, Heat pump hydronic heating systems
Global Sustainable Energy Solutions, 2017, Efficient hot water heating systems, 1st ed
Hahn, E, 2020, Hot Water Mixing Valve – Hot Water Tempering Valve Adjustment – Hot Water System Installation Regulations – Tempering Valve Regulations, Elgas
IEA HPT, n.d., Why heat pumps are a technology for the future, International Energy Agency Heat Pumping Technologies

IEA HPT, n.d., How does a heat pump work?, International Energy Agency Heat Pumping Technologies
IEA HPT, n.d., Efficiency and heat pumping application, International Energy Agency Heat Pumping Technologies
IEA HPT, n.d., Heat sources and heat sinks, International Energy Agency Heat Pumping Technologies
IEA HPT, n.d., Refrigerants, International Energy Agency Heat Pumping Technologies
Leverette, MM, 2020, Use the best washing machine water temperature for laundry: hot, warm, or cold water for laundry?, The Spruce
Lynn, CD, 2014, Hearth and campfire influences on arterial blood pressure: defraying the costs of the social brain through fireside relaxation, Evolutionary Psychology
Willmot, S, 2014, Choosing hot water systems for multi-unit residential, The Fifth Estate

Air quality, health and safety

ACT Government Access Canberra, n.d., Unflued gas heaters and your health
Actsmart, n.d., Wood heater replacement program
Australian Government, n.d., Are you burning their homes to warm yours? A site on the impact of firewood collection and use
Australian Government, 2006, Wood heater particle emissions and operating efficiency standards
Australian Government Department of Environment, 2016, Indoor air quality, Australia: State of the Environment
Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, 2002, Healthy homes: A guide to indoor air quality in the home for buyers, builders and renovators
Australian Government Department of Industry, 2015, The healthy home, YourHome, 5th ed.
Brown, SK, 2016, Indoor air quality activities in Australia, Indoor and Built Environment, vol 26, no 1
Climate Council of Australia, 2021, Kicking the gas habit: how gas is harming our health
EnergySafe Victoria, n.d., Cooking safely with gas
Holden, E, 2020, Gas stoves making indoor air up to five times dirtier than outdoor air, report finds, The Guardian
Kids Health Sydney Childrens’ Hospitals Network, n.d., Heaters and fireplaces

Knibbs, LD, Woldeyohannes, S, Marks, GB and Cowie, T, 2018, Damp housing, gas stoves, and the burden of childhood asthma in Australia, Medical Journal of Australia, vol 208, no 7, pp 299–302
Lindenmayer, D and Robinson, D, 2020, Logging is due to start in fire-ravaged forests this week. It’s the last thing our wildlife needs, The Conversation
Molloy, SB, Cheng, M, Galbally, IE, Keywood, MD, Lawson, SJ, Powell, JC, Gillett, R, Dunne, E, & Selleck, PW, 2012, Indoor air quality in typical temperate zone Australian dwellings, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 54, pp 400–7
Moms Clean Air Force, 2013, Natural gas and air pollution facts
NSW Government Health, 2018, Unflued gas heaters
Seals, B & Krasner, A, 2020, Gas Stoves: Health and Air Quality Impacts and Solutions, Rocky Mountain Institute
Seals, B, 2020, Indoor air pollution: the link between climate and health, Rocky Mountain Institute
Smith, G, 2021, Are gas appliances for cooking and heating bad for your health?, Choice
UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, 2020, Effects of residential gas appliances on indoor and outdoor air quality and public health in California

Climate change, energy efficiency and all-electric future

ACT Council of Social Services, 2019, Energy affordability and hardship in the ACT
ACT Government, n.d., Transitioning from gas to electric
Actsmart, 2015, Switch off gas
Alternative Technology Association, 2018, Household fuel choice in the National Electricity Market
ARENA, 2019, ‘Renewable energy brings heat to manufacturing’
Aries Clean Energy, n.d., ‘Replacing Natural Gas For Industry’
Better Renting, Home truths: energy efficiency guide for renters
Beyond Zero Emissions & Melbourne Energy Institute, The University of Melbourne, 2013, Zero carbon Australia buildings plan
Bolton, M, 2020, ‘Farm reduces electricity bill by $600,000 a year by swapping electricity for bacterial ‘farts’’, ABC News
C40 Cities, 2016, Press Release: 35 Finalists Announced for Fourth-Annual C40 Cities Awards
City of Berkeley, California, 2019, Ordinance No. 7,672-N.S. Adding a new chapter 12.80 to the Berkeley Municipal Code prohibiting natural gas infrastructure in new buildings effective January 1, 2020
Clemmer, S, Rogers, J, Sattler, S, Macknick, J, & Mai, T, 2013, Modeling low-carbon US electricity futures to explore impacts on national and regional water use, Environmental Research Letters, vol. 8, no. 1
ESI Africa, 2020, ‘Green hydrogen ideal for energy-intensive users, says wind industry’
Evans, S, 2017, Solar, wind and nuclear have ‘amazingly low’ carbon footprints, study finds, Carbon Brief
Fitzner, Z, 2018, The environmental impacts of solar and wind energy,
Ginninderry, 2018, First stage of Ginninderry to implement fully electric energy solutions for residents
Hopkins, FM, Ehleringer, JR, Bush, SE, Duren, RM, Miller, CE, Lai, CT, Hsu, Y, Carranza, V & Randerson, JT, 2016, Mitigation of methane emissions in cities: How new measurements and partnerships can contribute to emissions reduction strategies, Earth’s Future, vol 4, pp 408–25

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2018, Summary for Policymakers, in: Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty, World Meteorological Organization
Mannheim, M, 2019, Renewable energy supplies more than half of Australia’s national electricity market for first time, ABC News
Mazengarb, M, 2020, ‘Complete switch to hydrogen fuel flights possible by 2050, CSIRO says’, Renew Economy
Miller, LM, & Keith, DW, 2018, Observation-based solar and wind power capacity factors and power densities, Environmental Research Letters, vol. 13, no. 10
Morton, A, 2020, Chief scientist joins calls for Australia to dramatically boost energy efficiency, The Guardian
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2012, Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from solar photovoltaics
Office of the Commissioner for Sustainability and the Environment, 2019, ACT State of the Environment
Power, 2016, Weighing the environmental impacts of wind and solar,
Redux, n.d., Smart battery recycling
Sierra Club, 2019, Forward-looking cities lead the way to a gas-free future
Vaughan, A, 2011, Flat-screen TV electricity consumption falls by 60%
Veolia, n.d., ‘Woodlawn Bioreactor, NSW’
Vorath, S, 2020, ‘How “green steel” could replace Australia’s coal industry – and end climate wars’, Renew Economy
Zhang, Y, Soe, K & Guo, Y, 2019, ‘Green cement a step closer to being a game-changer for construction emissions’, The Conversation

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